How John F. Kennedy Changed Decision Making for Us All

Harvard Business Review

Yale psychologist Irving Janis used the debacle to coin the term “groupthink,” which refers to a psychological drive for consensus at any cost that suppresses dissent and appraisal of alternatives. Late in the evening on October 18, 1962, Attorney General Robert Kennedy squeezes into the front seat of his car. With him is the CIA director, the chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, and a driver. Six other high-level officials crowd into the back seat.

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Three Tips For Overcoming Your Blind Spots

Harvard Business Review

There’s also ample research – psychologist Irving Janis is the pioneer in this area – that when groups become too close-knit they fall prey to illusions of invincibility. Ernst Cramer , the late, great editor-in-chief of the German daily Die Welt , once recounted how as a college student in America in the midwest, just after World War II, he questioned in a math class whether the textbook was not mistaken in a particular instance.

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How One Hospital Improved Patient Handoffs for the Long Term

Harvard Business Review

Janis Christie/Getty Images. By the end of 2013, nurses reported over 20% of patient handoffs still had missing information. Roughly 80% of serious medical errors (now the third leading cause of death in the United States behind heart disease and cancer) can be traced to poor communication between care providers during patient handoffs, according to a 2012 Joint Commission report. This makes patient handoffs the most frequent and riskiest procedure in the hospital.