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Why Less is More in Teams

Harvard Business Review

In a brilliant twist on Ringelmann, Alan Ingham and three colleagues in the 1970s decided to recreate the experiment in the basement of the University of Massachusetts Amherst. Ingham and his colleagues had demonstrated that loss of effort could not be explained by lack of coordination, as Ringelmann originally thought. Why is it that American football uses eleven players, Canadian football twelve, and Gaelic fifteen? Why eleven in European soccer?

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